What Is Burden Sharing Agreement

References to “burden-sharing”, “responsibility-sharing” or what the Lisbon Treaty will now prefer to call “solidarity between Member States” are often heard in the context of EU policies. Recently, these references have been important in the areas of financial rescues in the context of EMU, EU climate policy and Member States` defence cooperation. This article aims to contribute to the emerging debate on European burden-sharing by answering the following questions: Why and under what conditions does burden-sharing between Member States take place? Why are “burdens” so unevenly distributed and how can existing models of burden-sharing between states be explained? Why are effective and fair effort-sharing agreements so difficult to implement? These questions provide a first glimpse of the theoretical debate on the motivations and mechanisms of burden-sharing in the EU; and secondly, by illustrating some of the challenges and limitations of fair burden-sharing in the case of refugee management in the EU. Keywords: greenhouse gas reduction, climate policy, distribution, international environmental agreements Keywords: burden-sharing, EU policy, Member States, refugee management Summary: Two decades after the creation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the parties reached a general political consensus to support the reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but the debate on how the burden of mitigation can be shared equitably among countries, Continues. Under the December 2015 Paris Agreement, countries submitted Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to reduce GHGs. I analyze these mitigation objectives to assess how similar they are to some effort-sharing proposals. The results could have multiple applications during the UNFCCC process, including simulating how mitigation commitments can evolve as countries get richer, and examining how more ambition could be allocated while maintaining the current implicit burden-sharing. One of the biggest challenges for participants in global climate negotiations is to find a burden-sharing system that can be accepted as “fair” by all governments or at least by most governments. In this article, we first examine which basic principles of equity seem sufficiently recognized to serve as a normative basis for such a system. We will then consider a number of proposals to differentiate the commitments proposed by governments in the negotiations for the Kyoto Protocol in order to see which principles have been respected. In the final section, we discuss the implications of our analysis for designing more specific load-sharing rules. Eiko Thielemann Maître de conférences en politique et politique européennes, Département du gouvernement et Institut européen, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), Londres, United Kingdom. Parson, E.

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